AP Biology Practice Test 14

Test Information

Question 12 questions

Time 15 minutes

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Questions 1-2 refer to the following information.

Two ecologists, Peter and Rosemary Grant, spent thirty years observing, tagging, and measuring finches (a type of bird) in the Galápagos Islands. They made their observations on Daphne Major—one of the most desolate of the Galápagos Islands. It is an uninhabited volcanic cone where only low to the ground cacti and shrubs grow. During 1977, there was a severe drought and seeds of all kinds became scarce. The small, soft seeds were quickly eaten by the birds, leaving mainly large, tough seeds that the finches normally ignore. The year after the drought, the Grants discovered that the average width of the finches' beak had increased.

1. Which of the following statements best explains the increase in beak size?

2. Which of the following statements best explains the mechanism behind the change in beak size?

Questions 3-4 refer to the following information.

Answer the following two questions based on this pedigree for the biochemical disorder known as alkaptonuria. Affected individuals are unable to break down a substance called alkapton, which colors the urine black and stains body tissues. Otherwise, the condition is of no consequence. Males are shown as squares, females as circles. Afflicted individuals are shown in black. If there is a carrier condition, it is not displayed.

3. Which of the following best states the pattern of inheritance shown in the pedigree?

4. Which of the following statement is supported by the information given in the pedigree?

5. Sea otters in the North Pacific are a keystone species. That means they are not abundant in a community. However, they do exert major control over other species in the community. Here is a food chain in which the sea otter is a keystone species.

Kelp → Sea urchin → Sea otter → Orca

Here are two graphs showing the populations of sea otters and sea urchins from 1970 to 2000.

In the late 1990s, orcas, which are active hunters of sea otter, moved into the area. Which of the following graphs correctly shows the kelp population from 1970 to 2000?

Questions 6-9 refer to the following information.

Four vials were set up to investigate bacterial transformation. Vials 1 and 2 each contained E. coli bacteria that had been made competent and had then been mixed with a plasmid containing the gene for ampicillin (pAMP) resistance. Vials 3 and 4 both contained E. coli that had also been made competent but had not been mixed with a plasmid. Each vial of bacteria was poured onto a nutrient agar plate. Vials 1 and 3 were poured onto plates that contained the antibiotic ampicillin. Vials 2 and 4 were poured onto plates that did not contain ampicillin.

This figure shows what the nutrient agar plates looked like. The shaded plates represent extensive growth, and the dots represent individual bacterial colonies.

6. Plates that have only ampicillin-resistant bacteria growing on them include which of the following?

7. Which of the following statements explains why there was no growth on Plate 3?

8. Which of the following statements best explains why there were fewer colonies on Plate 1 than on Plate 2?

9. In a variant of this experiment, the plasmid contained GFP (green fluorescent protein) in addition to ampicillin resistance. Which of the following plates would have the highest percentage of bacteria that would fluoresce?

10. Here is a sketch of a neuromuscular junction in a patient with an autoimmune disease. Acetylcholine (ACh) is the stimulatory neurotransmitter.

Which of the following predicts what will happen in the continued presence of the antibodies?

11. Which cell type is most likely involved in storage?

12. In 1953, Stanley Miller, while working under the guidance of Harold Urey at the University of Chicago, carried out a series of experiments with substances that mimicked those of early Earth. His experimental setup yielded a variety of amino acids that are found in organisms alive on Earth today. The purpose of these experiments best supports which of the following hypotheses?