AP Biology Practice Test 15

Test Information

Question 13 questions

Time 15 minutes

See All test questions

1. The graph on the left (A) shows an absorption spectrum for chlorophyll a extracted from a plant. The graph on the right (B) shows an action spectrum from a living plant, with wave lengths of light plotted against the rate of photosynthesis as measured by release of oxygen.

Which statement best explains the difference between the two spectra?

Questions 2-3 refer to the following information.

Cystic fibrosis is the most common inherited disease in the U.S. Among people of European descent, 4% are carriers of the recessive cystic fibrosis allele. The most common mutation in individuals with cystic fibrosis is a mutation in the CFTR protein that functions in the transport of chloride ions between certain cells and extracellular fluid. These chloride transport channels are defective or absent in the plasma membranes of people with the disorder. The result is abnormally high concentration of extracellular chloride that causes the mucus that coats certain cells to become thicker and stickier than normal. Mucus builds up in the pancreas, lungs, digestive tract, and other organs. This leads to multiple effects, including poor absorption of nutrients from the intestines, chronic bronchitis, and recurrent bacterial infections.

2. Scientific work has been carried out to measure where the relative amounts of CFTR protein are localized in the affected cells.

After studying the graph, which of the following statements about CFTR protein is correct?

3. From the description of cystic fibrosis above, which of the following statements is correct?

4. Referring to the simplified reaction of cellular respiration shown here, which of the following statements is correct?

C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy

5.

Based on the cladogram, which of the following is NOT true?

6. On Andros Islands in the Bahamas, populations of mosquito fish, Gambusia hubbsi, colonized a series of ponds. These ponds are no longer connected. However, the environments are very similar except that some ponds contain predatory fish, while others do not. In high predation ponds, selection has favored the evolution of a body shape that enables rapid bursts of speed. In low predation ponds, another body type is favored—one that is well-suited to swim for long periods of time.

When scientists brought together sample mosquito fish from the two types of ponds, they found that the females mated only with males that had the same body type as their own. Which of the following statements best describes what happened to the mosquito fish as evidenced by the mating choice in the female fish?

7. From 1972 to 2004, researchers studying the greater prairie chicken observed that a population collapse mirrored a reduction in fertility as measured by the hatching rate of eggs. Comparison of DNA samples from the Jasper County, Illinois, population with DNA from feathers in a museum collection showed that genetic variation had declined in the studied population. The researchers translocated prairie chickens from Minnesota, Kansas, and Nebraska into the Illinois prairie chicken population in 1992 and found that the hatching rate in Illinois prairie chickens changed. Here is a graph of the data.

Which of the following statements most accurately explains what happened to the studied population of prairie chickens after translocation and why?

8. Which of the following statements about the immune system is NOT correct?

9. In a study of dusty salamanders, Desmognathus ochrophaeus, scientists brought individuals from different populations into the laboratory and tested their ability to mate and produce viable, fertile offspring. Here is the graph of the data.

The degree of reproductive isolation is represented by an index ranging from 0 (no isolation) to 2 (complete isolation).

Which of the following statements best describes the evolutionary history of dusty salamanders?

10. Which of the following statements best describes what a Barr body is and its significance?

11. Scientists carried out a series of experiments to study innate immunity in fruit flies. They began with a mutant fly strain in which a pathogen is recognized but the signaling that would normally trigger an innate response is blocked. As a result, the flies did not make any antimicrobial peptides (AMP). The researchers then genetically engineered some of the mutant flies to express significant amounts of a single AMP, either defensin or drosomycin. They then infected the flies with a fungus, Neurospora crassa, by shaking anesthetized flies for 30 seconds in a Petri dish containing a sporulating fungal culture. The 6-day survival rate was monitored and recorded.

Here is a graph displaying some data from the experiment.

KEY:

A Wild type
B Mutant + drosomycin
C Mutant + defensin
D Mutant

Which of the following statements is supported by the data?

Questions 12-13 refer to the following information.

An experiment was carried out with guppies, which are brightly colored, popular, aquarium fish. Three hundred guppies were added to 12 large pools. Cichlids, a voracious predator, were added to 4 of the pools. Killifish that rarely eat guppies were added to 4 other pools. No other fish were added to the last 4 pools. After 16 months, a time period that represents 10 generations for guppies, all the guppies were analyzed for size and coloration. Here are the data.

12. Which of the following statements is supported by the data?

13. Which of the following statements best expresses the point of this experiment?