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1. When the first tiny prokaryotic cell took up residence inside a larger prokaryotic cell, it heralded the advent of the eukaryotic cell and led to an explosion of new life on Earth. Since then, most cells on Earth have internal organelles. Which of the following best summarizes an advantage of having internal membranes and organelles?
2. Many different fermentation pathways occur in different organisms in nature. For example, skeletal muscle cells convert pyruvate into lactic acid when no oxygen is present. Yeast cells can produce alcohol and carbon dioxide under the same circumstances. However, regardless of the specific reactions, the purpose of glycolysis is an important one. Which statement best describes the importance of glycolysis?
3. Human DNA and the DNA of a banana are 50% identical. Which statement best explains this fact in terms of what you know about the evolution of life on Earth?
4. Which of the following principles is NOT part of Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection?
5. Which of the following statements is supported by the information presented in the graph, which shows a comparison of two regions in Oregon, one deforested and the other undisturbed?
6. Here is a food web for a habitat that is threatened by developers who will remove three-fourths of the grasses in the area on which the mice and rabbits feed.
Which of the following statements describes what will most likely happen to the wildlife in the area?
7. The pH of two lakes is measured. Lake A has a pH of 8.0; Lake B has a pH of 6.0. Which of the following statements is correct about these lakes?
8. The BCL-2 gene codes for a protein that normally inhibits apoptosis. In some cases, the BCL-2 gene is mutated and becomes activated inappropriately. Cells with this mutated, overexpressed gene fail to undergo apoptosis; they continue to divide and form cancerous tumors. The mutated gene causes many cancers, including lymphoma and breast, colon, and prostate cancers. Oblimersen is a drug now in clinical trials that is an antisense RNA. It binds to BCL-2 mRNA and inactivates it. Which of the following sketches accurately demonstrates the action of the antisense drug Oblimersen?
9. Figure 1 shows the growth of the filamentous green algae Spirogyra in a flask of sterilized pond water that contains nitrate. If phosphate is added to the flask as shown, the growth curve changes to that shown in Figure 2.
Which of the following graphs is the best prediction of the algae growth if more nitrate (NO3) is added along with the phosphate?
10. Which of the following statements correctly characterizes an autoimmune disease?
11. Apoptosis, which is programmed cell death, is a necessary process in living organisms. Which of the following is NOT correct about apoptosis?
12. African lungfish often live in small, stagnant, freshwater pools. With reduced gills, they differ from other fish in that they breathe air. They also differ in that they release the nitrogen waste urea instead of ammonia. Which of the following statements correctly explains how this is an advantage for lungfish?