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1. Tay-Sachs is a disease caused by a recessive allele. Individuals with the genetic disorder usually do not survive more than a few years, and thus are not able to reproduce and pass on the gene. What would explain how this allele and its associated disease is preserved in the population?
2. A new plant was discovered and determined to have an unusually low number of stomata on the undersides of its leaves. For what environment would this plant most likely be best adapted?
3. The first simple cells evolved approximately 3.5 billion years ago, followed by the more complex eukaryotic cells 2.1 billion years ago. Which of the following statements is correct?
4. Easily produced genetic variation is key to the rapid evolution of viral and microbial populations. Furthermore, pathogens that need to escape the immune system rely on this variation to generate new surface antigens that go unrecognized by the host’s immune system. Which of the following is an example of this antigenic variation?
5. Two species of hamster (X and Y) are in the genus Cricetulus, whereas a third species (Z) is instead part of genus Mesocricetus. Which of the following phylogenetic trees shows the correct evolutionary relatedness?
6. A baby duck runs for cover when a large object is tossed over its head. After this object is repeatedly passed overhead, the duck learns there is no danger and stops running for cover when the same object appears again. This is an example of
7. In a population of giraffes, an environmental change occurs that favors individuals that are tallest. As a result, more of the taller individuals are able to obtain nutrients and survive to pass along their genetic information. This is an example of
8. The relatives of a group of pelicans from the same species that separated from each other because of an unsuccessful migration are reunited 150 years later and find that they are unable to produce offspring. This is an example of
9. A cell is placed into a hypertonic environment and its cytoplasm shrivels up. This demonstrates the principle of
10. Which of the following is a biotic factor that could affect the growth rate of a population?
11. Which of the following is not a way to form recombinant DNA?
12. Chemiosmosis occurs in