AP Biology Practice Test 38

Test Information

Question 12 questions

Time 15 minutes

See All test questions

Questions 1-5 refer to the following information.

Questions refer to the following figure, which shows a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) signaling cascade. Mitogens are substances that stimulate cell division.

1. The figure shows two signaling molecules binding to a transmembrane receptor protein (shown at I). What do these signaling molecules do?

2. In the figure, the activated receptor proteins allow the binding of a relay protein (shown at II). In turn, the relay protein triggers the activation of the G protein called Ras. How is the Ras protein activated?

3. A signaling cascade is illustrated by protein kinase 1, protein kinase 2, protein kinase 3, and MAP. What purpose does this cascade serve?

4. The final step shown for this pathway is the transcription of an mRNA (shown at III). What is the most likely mechanism that initiates this step?

5. Mutations in the Ras protein are found in humans. One of these mutations leads to a form of Ras that does not respond to the relay protein but is permanently activated. For such a mutated Ras, which of the following is the most likely effect on its mitogen functions?

Questions 6-9 refer to the following information.

Questions refer to the following figure showing the replicative cycle of an RNA retrovirus such as HIV, the AIDS virus.

6. The process indicated by process I in the figure is catalyzed by

7. The process indicated by process III in the figure is catalyzed by

8. To complete the process of viral replication, the two processes following the arrow at process IV in the figure produce

9. Where are viral genes transcribed into mRNA?

10. Compared to DNA viral replication, RNA viral replication is more susceptible to mutation because

Questions 11-12 refer to the following information.

Questions refer to the following table that indicates the presence or absence of traits X, Y, and Z in species I, II, and III. The number 1 indicates that a character is present; a 0 indicates that it is absent.

SpeciesTrait
XY Z
I110
II111
III100
Outgroup000

11. Which of the following trees correctly reflects the data shown in the table?

12. With respect to traits X, Y, and Z, which of the following is true?