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1. Stomata allow gases, such as H2O and CO2, to exchange between the inside of a plant leaf and the surrounding environment. Which of the following occurs under normal daytime environmental conditions?
2. In reference to a segment of DNA, which of the following molecules contains the fewest number of nucleotides?
Which of the following best supports the data presented in the graph above?
4. The figure that follows illustrates chromosome 3 for humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans (left to right). Boxes 1 and 4 outline banding patterns that are nearly identical for all four species, but differences between species occur in boxes 2 and 3.
With respect to the chromosome segments in boxes 2 and 3, which of the following best explains how orangutans differ from the other species?
5. Nymphaea odorata, a water lily, is an aquatic plant whose leaves and flowers float on the surface of the water. Which of the following characteristics would be expected for leaves of this plant?
6. Which of the following would most likely describe the fate of a vesicle formed as a result of phagocytosis?
7. More than a dozen species of Darwin's finches with various specialized adaptations inhabit the Galápagos Islands. Each species possesses a specialized adaptation for obtaining food. Why is it that similar adaptations do not exist among the finches of the South American mainland, the presumed origin of the Galápagos finch ancestor?
8. In the pedigree shown below, circles indicate females and squares indicate males. A horizontal line connecting a male and female indicates that these two individuals produced offspring. Offspring are indicated by a descending vertical line that branches to the offspring. A filled circle or filled square indicates that the individual has a particular trait.
The pedigree can be explained by all of the following inheritance patterns EXCEPT:
9. When water evaporates from the surface of a pond, what happens to the remaining liquid water?
10. Oligomycin is an antibiotic that blocks proton channels in the cristae of mitochondria by binding to ATP synthase. Which of the following would be the first expected response after the application of oligomycin to cells?
11. Phases of mitosis in a randomly dividing section of a root tip were observed through a microscope in the following numbers:
Which of the following can be correctly concluded from this data?
12. In the inherited disorder called Pompe disease, glycogen breakdown in the cytosol occurs normally and blood glucose levels are normal, yet glycogen accumulates in lysosomes. This suggests a malfunction with