6 questions

9 minutes

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1.

Here is a chart of Earthâ€™s water cycle. Reservoirs (boxes) are measured in 10^{15} kg. Fluxes or flows (arrows) are shown as 10^{15} kg/yr. Calculate the flux of water from the land to the oceans or rivers. Record your answer as a whole number.

2. A student carried out an experiment with fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, to determine how the white-eyed trait is inherited. To determine if the trait is sex-linked or autosomal, she initally did two crosses. First she crossed a pure white-eyed female with a pure red-eyed male. She counted 100 F1offspring. All the female offspring had red eyes, and all the males had white eyes. Then she did the reciprocal cross, mating a pure white-eyed male with a pure red-eyed female. All the F1 offspring had red eyes. Because the student found different results in the two trial crosses, she assumed that she had confirmed that the trait is a sex-linked one.

Next she wanted to determine if the trait is sex-linked dominant or recessive. She hypothesized that since sex-linked recessive is more common, the white-eyed trait is recessive. This time she crossed a male F1 and a female F1 from the first cross. She counted 200 F2 flies. Here are her results:

There were 46 red-eyed females, 52 white-eyed females, 53 white-eyed males, and49 red-eyed females.

Calculate the chi-squared value for the null hypothesis that the white-eyed trait is sex-linked recessive. Give your answer to the nearest tenth./p>

3. A population of butterflies found in Madagascar is polymorphic. There are two varieties of the coloring. The trait for a yellow stripe on the wing is dominant over having no stripe. In recent years the island was struck by several powerful storms and the butterfly population was drastically reduced. Now the population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and the snails exhibiting the trait for having no stripe on the wing is 21% of the population. What will the frequency of the allele for no stripe be next year?

4. The carbon cycle involves the flux, or flow, of carbon among different systems on Earth. Scientists throughout the world are working to determine the amounts of carbon stored in different components of Earth and the movements of carbon among those components. By using different methods, scientists have been able to determine the approximate quantities and fluxes involved in the global carbon cycle. This sketch shows the movement of carbon measured in gigatons (GT).

5.

Determine the amount of carbon that reaches the ocean surface from marine biota.

Here is a growth curve for a population of rabbits that were accidentally introduced into a region of New Zealand.

Calculate the mean rate of growth from Day 30 to Day 40. Record your answer to the nearest whole number.

6. Here is a graph showing the amount of product formed during an enyzyme-mediated reaction. Calculate the mean rate of product formed in the first 90 seconds.