AP European History Practice Test 1

Test Information

Question 12 questions

Time 12 minutes

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Questions 1-3 refer to the following information.

Source: Clergy torturing a layman

1. The illustration above illustrates the draconian tactics at times used during which of the following state actions used to control religion and morality?

2. Religious trials, such as the one above, usually focused on the persecution of which of the following?

3. Which of the following is the best characterization of how much control the state has had over the religion and morality of its citizens in Europe from 1450 to the present?

Questions 4-7 refer to the following information.

I am of opinion that the principal and true profession of the Courtier ought to be that of arms; which I would have him follow actively above all else, and be known among others as bold and strong, and loyal to whomsoever he serves. . . .

I would have him well built and shapely of limb, and would have him show strength and lightness and suppleness, and know all bodily exercises that befit a man of war; whereof I think the first should be to handle every sort of weapon well on foot and on horse, to understand the advantages of each, and especially to be familiar with those weapons that are ordinarily used among gentlemen. . . .

Our Courtier then will be esteemed excellent and will attain grace in everything, particularly in speaking. . . .

I would have him more than passably accomplished in letters, at least in those studies that are called the humanities, and conversant not only with the Latin language but with the Greek, for the sake of the many different things that have been admirably written therein. Let him be well versed in the poets, and not less in the orators and historians, and also proficient in writing verse and prose, especially in this vulgar [vernacular] tongue of ours. . . .

You must know that I am not content with the Courtier unless he be also a musician and unless, besides understanding and being able to read notes, he can play upon divers instruments. . . .

I wish our Courtier to guard against getting the name of a liar or a boaster, which sometimes befalls even those who do not deserve it.

—From Baldassare Castiglione's Book of the Courtier, 1528

4. The text above was most likely seen as which of the following at the time it was written?

5. Which of the following themes of the Renaissance era is the above writing most connected to?

6. Which of the following reforms would Castiglione most likely want to institute?

7. Which of the following skills that Castiglione recommends for a courtier would be valued LEAST by a European gentleman at the end of the twentieth century?

Questions 8-12 refer to the following information.

The pair of excerpts below is written by explorer Christopher Columbus and the Dominican Bishop of Chiapas, Mexico, Bartholomew de las Casas.

Source 1

Indians would give whatever the seller required. . . . Thus they bartered, like idiots, cotton and gold for fragments of bows, glasses, bottles, and jars; which I forbad as being unjust, and myself gave them many beautiful and acceptable articles which I had brought with me, taking nothing from them in return; I did this in order that I might the more easily conciliate them, that they might be led to become Christians, and be inclined to entertain a regard for the King and Queen, our Princes and all Spaniards, and that I might induce them to take an interest in seeking out, and collecting and delivering to us such things as they possessed in abundance, but which we greatly needed.

—Christopher Columbus: letter to Raphael Sanchez, 1493

Source 2

It was upon these gentle lambs . . . that from the very first day they clapped eyes on them the Spanish fell like ravening wolves upon the fold, or like tigers and savage lions who have not eaten meat for days. The pattern established at the outset has remained unchanged to this day, and the Spaniards still do nothing save tear the natives to shreds, murder them and inflict upon them untold misery, suffering and distress, tormenting, harrying and persecuting them mercilessly. We shall in due course describe some of the many ingenious methods of torture they have invented and refined for this purpose, but one can get some idea of the effectiveness of their methods from the figures alone. When the Spanish first journeyed there, the indigenous population of the island of Hispaniola stood at some three million; today only two hundred survive. Their reason for killing and destroying such an infinite number of souls is that the Christians have an ultimate aim, which is to acquire gold, and to swell themselves with riches in a very brief time and thus rise to a high estate disproportionate to their merits.

—Bartholomew de las Casas: A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies, 1542

8. Which of the following motives for exploration does de las Casas seem to be criticizing in Source 2?

9. The free flow of plants and animals, as well as trade goods, between Europe and the Americas is referred to by historians as the Columbian Exchange, and affected the natives in which of the following ways?

10. The free flow of plants and animals, as well as trade goods, between Europe and the Americas is referred to by historians as the Columbian Exchange, and affected the Europeans in which of the following ways?

11. Which of the following motives for exploration is de las Casas most likely to think is most important in Source 2?

12. Which of the following would best account for the differences between the interactions of the Spaniards and the natives as described in the two accounts?