AP European History Practice Test 19

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Question 10 questions

Time 10 minutes

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Questions 1-3 refer to the following information.

Many things combine to make the hand spinning of wool, the most desirable work for the cottager's wife and children. A wooden wheel costing 2 s[hillings] for each person, with one reel costing 3 s[hillings] set up the family. The wool-man either supplies them with wool by the pound or more at a time, as he can depend on their care, or they take it on his account from the chandler's shop, where they buy their food and raiment. No stock is required, and when they carry back their pound of wool spun, they have no further concern in it. Children from five years old can run at the wheel, it is a very wholesome employment for them, keeps them in constant exercise, and upright; persons can work at it till a very advanced age.

But from the establishment of the [mechanical] spinning machines in many counties where I was last summer, no hand work could be had, the consequence of which is the whole maintenance of the family devolves on the father, and instead of six or seven shillings a week, which a wife and four children could add by their wheels, his weekly pay is all they have to depend upon. …

I then walked to the Machines, and with some difficulty gained admittance: there I saw both the Combing Machine and Spinning Jenny. The Combing Machine was put in motion by a Wheel turned by four men, but which I am sure could be turned either by water or steam. The frames were supplied by a child with Wool, and as the wheel turned, flakes of ready combed Wool dropped off a cylinder into a trough, these were taken up by a girl of about fourteen years old, who placed them on the Spinning Jenny, which has a number of horizontal beams of wood, on each of which may be fifty bobbins. One such girl sets these bobbins all in motion by turning a wheel at the end of the beam, a wire then catches up a flake of Wool, spins it, and gathers it upon each bobbin. The girl again turns the wheel, and another fifty flakes are taken up and Spun. This is done every minute without intermission, so that probably one girl turning that wheel, may do the work of One Hundred Hand Wheels at the least. About twenty of these sets of bobbins, were I judge at work in one room. Most of these Manufactories are many stories high, and the rooms much larger than this I was in. Struck with the impropriety of even so many as the twenty girls I saw, without any woman presiding over them, I enquired of the Master if he was married, why his Wife was not present? He said he was not a married man, and that many parents did object to send their girls, but that the poverty of others, and not having any work to set them to, left him not at any loss for hands. I must do all the parties the justice to say, that these girls appeared neat and orderly: yet at best, I cannot but fear the taking such young persons from the eyes of their parents, and thus herding them together with only men and boys, must bring up a dissolute race of poor.

Observations … on the Loss of Woollen Spinning, c. 1794

1. The changes described by the passage reflect

2. From the passage, one may infer that

3. From the passage, one may infer that one of the moral objections to mill work in the wool spinning industry was

Questions 4-6 refer to the following information.

After as careful an examination of the evidence collected as I have been enabled to make, I beg leave to recapitulate the chief conclusions which that evidence appears to me to establish. As to the extent and operation of the evils which are the subject of this inquiry [the results indicate]:

That the various forms of epidemic, endemic, and other disease caused, or aggravated, or propagated chiefly amongst the labouring classes by atmospheric impurities produced by decomposing animal and vegetable substances, by damp and filth, and close and overcrowded dwellings prevail amongst the population in every part of the kingdom, whether dwelling in separate houses, in rural villages, in small towns, in the larger towns—as they have been found to prevail in the lowest districts of the metropolis. …

That the ravages of epidemics and other diseases do not diminish but tend to increase the pressure of population. … [In] the districts where the mortality is greatest the births are not only sufficient to replace the numbers removed by death, but to add to the population.

That the younger population, bred up under noxious physical agencies, is inferior in physical organization and general health to a population preserved from the presence of such agencies.

That the population so exposed is less susceptible of moral influences, and the effects of education are more transient than with a healthy population.

That these adverse circumstances tend to produce an adult population short-lived, improvident, reckless, and intemperate, and with habitual avidity for sensual gratifications.

Sir Edwin Chadwick, Inquiry into the Sanitary Condition of the Poor, 1842

4. From the passage, one may infer that one of the chief sources of disease in the poor areas of mid-nineteenth-century Britain was

5. According to Chadwick's report, the effect of rampant epidemic and disease on population pressure was

6. From the passage, one may infer that mid-nineteenth-century reformers in Britain believed that unsanitary living conditions

Questions 7-8 refer to the following information.

7. The image most likely refers to which of these events in 1830?

8. From the image, one may infer that it depicted a conflict between

Questions 9-10 refer to the following information.

Europe no longer possesses unity of faith, of mission, or of aim. Such unity is a necessity in the world. Here, then, is the secret of the crisis. It is the duty of every one to examine and analyze calmly and carefully the probable elements of this new unity. …

It was not for a material interest that the people of Vienna fought in 1848; in weakening the empire they could only lose power. It was not for an increase of wealth that the people of Lombardy fought in the same year; the Austrian Government had endeavored in the year preceding to excite the peasants against the landed proprietors, as they had done in Gallicia; but everywhere they had failed. They struggled, they still struggle, as do Poland, Germany, and Hungary, for country and liberty; for a word inscribed upon a banner, proclaiming to the world that they also live, think, love, and labor for the benefit of all. They speak the same language, they bear about them the impress of consanguinity, they kneel beside the same tombs, they glory in the same tradition; and they demand to associate freely, without obstacles, without foreign domination, in order to elaborate and express their idea; to contribute their stone also to the great pyramid of history. It is something moral which they are seeking; and this moral something is in fact, even politically speaking, the most important question in the present state of things. It is the organization of the European task. … The nationality of the peoples … can only be founded by a common effort and a common movement; … nationality ought only to be to humanity that … of a human group called by its geographical position, its traditions, and its language, to fulfil a special function in the European work of civilization.

Giuseppe Mazzini, On Nationality, 1852

9. From the passage, one may infer that Mazzini argued that the proper definition of a nation was

10. Mazzini could best be described as influenced by which two ideological movements of the mid-nineteenth century?