AP European History Practice Test 20

Test Information

Question 11 questions

Time 11 minutes

See All test questions

Questions 1-3 refer to the following information.

Yesterday Deputy Bamberger compared the business of government with that of a cobbler who measures shoes, which he thereupon examines as to whether they are suitable for him or not and accordingly accepts or rejects them. I am by no means dissatisfied with this humble comparison .… The profession of government in the sense of Frederick the Great is to serve the people, and may it be also as a cobbler; the opposite is to dominate the people. We want to serve the people. But I make the demand on Herr Bamberger that he act as my co-shoemaker in order to make sure that no member of the public goes barefoot, and to create a suitable shoe for the people in this crucial area. …

For it is an injustice on the one hand to hinder the self-defense of a large class of our fellow citizens and on the other hand not to offer them aid for the redress of that which causes the dissatisfaction. That the Social Democratic leaders wish no advantage for this law, that I understand; dissatisfied workers are just what they need. Their mission is to lead, to rule, and the necessary prerequisite for that is numerous dissatisfied classes. They must naturally oppose any attempt of the government, however well-intentioned it may be, to remedy this situation, if they do not wish to lose control over the masses they mislead. …

The whole problem is rooted in the question: does the state have the responsibility to care for its helpless fellow citizens, or does it not? I maintain that it does have this duty. … It would be madness for a corporate body or a collectivity to take charge of those objectives that the individual can accomplish; those goals that the community can fulfill with justice and profit should be relinquished to the community. [But] there are objectives that only the state in its totality can fulfill. … Among the last mentioned objectives [of the state] belong national defense [and] the general system of transportation. … To these belong also the help of persons in distress and the prevention of such justified complaints. … That is the responsibility of the state from which the state will not be able to withdraw in the long run.

Otto von Bismarck, "Reichstag Speech on the Law for Workers' Compensation," 1884

1. This passage most clearly shows the influence of which of the following trends in Europe in the second half of the nineteenth century?

2. In the passage, Bismarck is attempting to portray his government as

3. The role of the state described by Bismarck could be best described as

Questions 4-6 refer to the following information.

4. In the image, Giuseppe Garibaldi is depicted as fitting the "boot of Italy" onto the leg of King Victor Emmanuel II of Piedmont-Sardinia. From the image, one may infer that the cartoonist

5. From the image, one may infer that the date of the image is

6. From the image, one may infer that the cartoonist

Questions 7-8 refer to the following information.

Confidential—For Your Excellency's personal information and guidance

The Austro-Hungarian Ambassador yesterday delivered to the [German] Emperor [Wilhelm II] a confidential personal letter from the Emperor Francis Joseph [of Austria-Hungary], which depicts the present situation from the Austro-Hungarian point of view, and describes the measures which Vienna has in view. A copy is now being forwarded to Your Excellency. …

His Majesty desires to say that he is not blind to the danger which threatens Austria-Hungary and thus the Triple Alliance as a result of the Russian and Serbian Pan-Slavic agitation. … His Majesty will, furthermore, make an effort at Bucharest, according to the wishes of the Emperor Franz Joseph, to influence King Carol to the fulfilment of the duties of his alliance, to the renunciation of Serbia, and to the suppression of the Rumanian agitations directed against Austria-Hungary.

Finally, as far as concerns Serbia, His Majesty, of course, cannot interfere in the dispute now going on between Austria-Hungary and that country, as it is a matter not within his competence. The Emperor Franz Joseph may, however, rest assured that His Majesty will faithfully stand by Austria-Hungary, as is required by the obligations of his alliance and of his ancient friendship.

Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg (chancellor of Germany), telegram to the German ambassador at Vienna, July 6, 1914

7. The best description of the context of Bethmann-Hollweg's telegram is

8. From the passage, one may infer that Bethmann-Hollweg's telegram is often referred to as Germany's "blank check" because

Questions 9-11 refer to the following information.

How has the war affected women? How will it affect them? Women, as half the human race, are compelled to take their share of evil and good with men, the other half. The destruction of property, the increase of taxation, the rise of prices, the devastation of beautiful things in nature and art—these are felt by men as well as by women. Some losses doubtless appeal to one or the other sex with peculiar poignancy, but it would be difficult to say whose sufferings are the greater, though there can be no doubt at all that men get an exhilaration out of war which is denied to most women. …

Men and women must take counsel together and let the experience of the war teach them how to solve economic problems by co-operation rather than conflict. Women [drawn into the workforce] have been increasingly conscious of the satisfaction to be got from economic independence, of the sweetness of earned bread, of the dreary depression of subjection. They have felt the bitterness of being "kept out"; they are feeling the exhilaration of being "brought in." They are ripe for instruction and organization in working for the good of the whole. …

It would be wise to remember that the dislocation of industry at the outbreak of the war was easily met … because there was an untapped reservoir of women's labor to take the place of men's. The problems after the war will be different, greater, and more lasting. …

Because it will obviously be impossible for all to find work quickly (not to speak of the right kind of work), there is almost certain to be an outcry for the restriction of work in various directions, and one of the first cries (if we may judge from the past) will be to women: "Back to the Home!" This cry will be raised whether the women have a home or not. We must understand the unimpeachable right of the man who has lost his work and risked his life for his country, to find decent employment, decent wages and conditions, on his return to civil life. We must also understand the enlargement and enhancement of life which women feel when they are able to live by their own productive work, and we must realize that to deprive women of the right to live by their work is to send them back to a moral imprisonment (to say nothing of physical and intellectual starvation), of which they have become now for the first time fully conscious. And we must realize the exceeding danger that conscienceless employers may regard women's labor as preferable, owing to its cheapness and its docility. … The kind of man who likes "to keep women in their place" may find he has made slaves who will be used by his enemies against him.

Helena Swanwick, "The War in Its Effect upon Women," 1916

9. From the passage, one may infer that the context for Swanick's essay was

10. From the passage, one may infer that its author believed that women who had been drawn into the workforce would, at the war's conclusion,

11. From the passage, one may infer that Swanick surmised that some employers would be tempted to see women as