AP European History Practice Test 25

Test Information

Question 10 questions

Time 10 minutes

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Questions 1-5 refer to the following information.

"The Government of the German Reich and The Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics desirous of strengthening the cause of peace between Germany and the U.S.S.R., and proceeding from the fundamental provisions of the Neutrality Agreement concluded in April, 1926 between Germany and the U.S.S.R., have reached the following Agreement:

Article I. Both High Contracting Parties obligate themselves to desist from any act of violence, any aggressive action, and any attack on each other, either individually or jointly with other Powers.

Article II. Should one of the High Contracting Parties become the object of belligerent action by a third Power, the other High Contracting Party shall in no manner lend its support to this third Power.

Article III. The Governments of the two High Contracting Parties shall in the future maintain continual contact with one another for the purpose of consultation in order to exchange information on problems affecting their common interests.

Article IV. Should disputes or conflicts arise between the High Contracting Parties shall participate in any grouping of Powers whatsoever that is directly or indirectly aimed at the other party.

Article V. Should disputes or conflicts arise between the High Contracting Parties over problems of one kind or another, both parties shall settle these disputes or conflicts exclusively through friendly exchange of opinion or, if necessary, through the establishment of arbitration commissions."

Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, 1939

1. This agreement allowed both nations involved to freely invade which country?

2. The Soviets were most strongly motivated to create this agreement because

3. It can be inferred from the text that Germany and the Soviet Union

4. The article listed above that was violated by Operation Barbarossa was

5. The agreement described in the text is most similar to the

Questions 6-10 refer to the following information.

"But you, my dear Pangloss," said Candide, "how can it be that I behold you again?"

"It is true," said Pangloss, "that you saw me hanged&….A surgeon purchased my body, carried home, and dissected me. He began with making a crucial incision on me from the navel to the clavicula. One could not have been worse hanged than I was. The executioner of the Holy Inquisition was a sub-deacon, and knew how to burn people marvellously well, but he was not accustomed to hanging. The cord was wet and did not slip properly, and besides it was badly tied; in short, I still drew my breath, when the crucial incision made me give such a frightful scream that my surgeon fell flat upon his back&…[At length he] sewed up my wounds; his wife even nursed me. I was upon my legs at the end of fifteen days&….

One day I took it into my head to step into a mosque, where I saw an old Iman and a very pretty young devotee who was saying her paternosters&….She dropped her bouquet; I picked it up, and presented it to her with a profound reverence. I was so long in delivering it that the Iman began to get angry, and seeing that I was a Christian he called out for help. They carried me before the cadi, who ordered me a hundred lashes on the soles of the feet and sent me to the galleys. I was chained to the very same galley and the same bench as the young Baron. On board this galley there were four young men from Marseilles, five Neapolitan priests, and two monks from Corfu, who told us similar adventures happened daily. The Baron maintained that he had suffered greater injustice than I&….We were continually disputing, and received twenty lashes with a bull's pizzle when the concatenation of universal events brought you to our galley, and you were good enough to ransom us."

"Well, my dear Pangloss," said Candide to him, "when you had been hanged, dissected, whipped, and were tugging at the oar, did you always think that everything happens for the best?"

"I am still of my first opinion," answered Pangloss, "for I am a philosopher and I cannot retract, especially as Leibnitz could never be wrong; and besides, the pre-established harmony is the finest thing in the world, and so is his plenum and materia subtilis."

Voltaire, French Enlightenment writer, Candide, 1759

6. The themes of the passage and the mode in which Pangloss tells them show the influence of

7. The mockery of the Inquisition executioner who failed to hang Pangloss reflects the era's

8. The "concatenation of universal events" that brought the men together on the ship illustrates the eighteenth-century fondness of

9. Candide's statement that "everything always happens for the best" can be seen as a reflection of the Enlightenment belief that

10. The critiques offered by Voltaire through Candide are most closely shared by what other philosopher?