AP European History Practice Test 7

Test Information

Question 9 questions

Time 9 minutes

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Questions 1-2 refer to the following information.

Read the excerpts below.

This corruption is repeatedly designated by Paul by the term sin . . . such as adultery, fornication, theft, hatred, murder, revellings, he terms, in the same way, the fruits of sin, though in various passages of Scripture . . . we are, merely on account of such corruption, deservedly condemned by God, to whom nothing is acceptable but righteousness, innocence, and purity.

—John Calvin, from The Institutes of Christian Religion, Book 2: Chapter 1, 1545

The covenant of life is not preached equally to all, and among those to whom it is preached, does not always meet with the same reception. This diversity displays the unsearchable depth of the divine judgment, and is without doubt subordinate to God's purpose of eternal election. But if it is plainly owing to the mere pleasure of God that salvation is spontaneously offered to some, while others have no access to it, great and difficult questions immediately arise, questions which are inexplicable, when just views are not entertained concerning election and predestination[,] . . . the grace of God being illustrated by the contrast, viz., that he does not adopt all promiscuously to the hope of salvation, but gives to some what he denies to others.

—John Calvin, from The Institutes of Christian Religion, Book 3: Chapter 21, 1545

1. Which of the following justifications used by Protestant reformers such as Calvin is alluded to above?

2. Which of the following is the biggest contrast between the ideas of Calvinists when compared to their fellow Protestant Lutherans?

Questions 3-5 refer to the following information.

Questions refer to the map below.

3. The shaded areas on the map above represent which of the following?

4. The shaded areas additionally have in common which of the following during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries?

5. Which of the following is the best description of how the map above would change were it drawn to represent the same area 100 years after the first acquisitions were made?

Questions 6-9 refer to the following information.

Read the following quote.

I had now decided beyond all question that there existed in the heavens three stars wandering about Jupiter as do Venus and Mercury about the sun, and this became plainer than daylight from observations on similar occasions which followed. Nor were there just three such stars; four wanderers complete their revolutions about Jupiter, and of their alterations as observed more precisely later on we shall give a description here. Also I measured the distances between them by means of the telescope. . . .

Such are the observations concerning the four Medicean planets recently first discovered by me, and although from this data their periods have not yet been reconstructed in numerical form, it is legitimate at least to put in evidence some facts worthy of note. Above all, since they sometimes follow and sometimes precede Jupiter by the same intervals, and they remain within very limited distances either to east or west of Jupiter, accompanying that planet in both its retrograde and direct movements in a constant manner, no one can doubt that they complete their revolutions about Jupiter and at the same time effect all together a twelve-year period about the center of the universe.

—Galileo Galilei, 1610

6. Which of the following Polish thinkers was most likely the person whose ideas convinced Galileo to have written the statement above?

7. Which of the following conclusions drawn in part from the observations above was the most revolutionary over time?

8. Which of the following intellectual hallmarks of the Renaissance seem most in conflict with the questioning of the ancient philosophers, such as Aristotle, through experimentation in natural philosophy?

9. Which of the following is best demonstrated by the passage about intellectual thought at the time?