**How to Approach AP PHYSICS C Free-Response Questions**

Section II is worth 50 percent of your grade on the AP Physics C Exam. You're given a total of 45 minutes to answer three free-response questions on both the Mechanics test and the E & M test, which means you must answer a total of six questions in 90 minutes.

In the Mechanics free-response section, there is almost always one general mechanics question that involves a variety of principles: energy, momentum, Newton's laws, and other physics concepts. This problem synthesizes a lot of concepts, but each part is usually straightforward. Another one of the questions is almost always a rotational motion problem: rolling motion, fixed-axis rotation, and/or angular momentum. Though you might encounter a second general mechanics question, one of the three problems usually comes from among the following topics: resistive forces, simple harmonic motion, potential energy functions, circular motion and orbits, and gravitational forces. One of these three questions usually involves an experimental component. This is a problem in which an experiment is explained, data or a graph is given, and you must use the information given to solve the problem. The other type of experimental problem asks you to design an experiment that would determine some value you have previously solved for. The experimental problems may make up just one part of one question, or an entire question may be centered on the experiment.

**Pace Yourself**

The time constraints of answering three multiple-part free-response questions in 45 minutes can be a challenge. Again, pace yourself so you get to part of each problem. Make sure to skim all the questions quickly to determine which will be the easiest to solve and start with that one. Often some specific parts of a question are easy, so even if the rest of the question is very difficult, make sure to answer these easier parts. Often students spend too long to get all the parts of one question correct and get almost nothing correct on the other two problems because they are rushed. Pace yourself so that you get to answer the easiest parts of all three questions, and leave the parts that stump you for last.

On the Electricity and Magnetism free-response section, you will almost always see one electrostatics question, one circuits question, and one magnetism question. The electrostatics question is often on Gauss's law or several point charges distributed in a plane. The circuit question almost always involves an RC circuit and occasionally includes an inductor. The circuit will feature a switch to add different electrical components at different times. The magnetism question almost always involves induced emf, Faraday's law, and occasionally includes Ampere's law to determine the magnetic field of a wire, solenoid, or toroid. This portion of the test can also include an experimental component. Infrequently there are two magnetism questions and no circuits questions on the free-response section of the test.

**Clearly Explain and Justify Your Answers**

Remember that your answers to the free-response questions are graded by readers and not by computers. Communication is a very important part of AP Physics C. Compose your answers in precise sentences. Just getting the correct numerical answer is not enough. You should be able to explain your reasoning behind the technique that you selected and communicate your answer in the context of the problem. Even if the question does not explicitly say so, always explain and justify every step of your answer, including the final answer. Do not expect the graders to read between the lines. Explain everything as though somebody with no knowledge of physics is going to read it. Be sure to present your solution in a systematic manner using solid logic and appropriate language. And remember: Although you won't earn points for neatness, the graders can't give you a grade if they can't read and understand your solution!

**Use Only the Space You Need**

Do not try to fill up the space provided for each question. The space given is usually more than enough. The people who design the tests realize that some students write in big letters and some students make mistakes and need extra space for corrections. So if you have a complete solution, don't worry about the extra space. Writing more will not earn you extra credit. In fact, many students tend to go overboard and shoot themselves in the foot by making a mistake after they've already written the right answer.

**Complete the Whole Question**

Some questions might have several subparts. Try to answer them all, and don't give up on the question if one part is giving you trouble. For example, if the answer to part (b) depends on the answer to part (a), but you think you got the answer to part (a) wrong, you should still go ahead and do part (b) using your answer to part (a) as required. Chances are that the grader will not mark you wrong twice, unless it is obvious from your answer that you should have discovered your mistake.

**Use Common Sense**

Always use your common sense in answering questions. For example, on a free-response question that asked students to compute the mean weight of newborn babies from given data, some students answered 70 pounds. It should have been immediately obvious that the answer was probably off by a decimal point. A 70-pound baby would be a giant! This is an important mistake that should be easy to fix. Some mistakes may not be so obvious from the answer. However, the grader will consider simple, easily recognizable errors to be very important.

**Think Like a Grader**

When answering questions, try to think about what kind of answer the grader is expecting. Look at past free-response questions and grading rubrics on the College Board website. These examples will give you some idea of how the answers should be phrased. The graders are told to keep in mind that there are two aspects to the scoring of free-response answers: showing physics knowledge and communicating that knowledge. Again, responses should be written as clearly as possible in complete sentences.

**Think Before You Write**

Abraham Lincoln once said that if he had eight hours to chop down a tree, he would spend six of them sharpening his axe. Be sure to spend some time thinking about what the question is, what answers are being asked for, what answers might make sense, and what your intuition is before starting to write. These questions aren't meant to trick you, so all the information you need is given. If you think you don't have the right information, you may have misunderstood the question. In some calculations, it is easy to get confused, so think about whether your answers make sense in terms of what the question is asking. If you have some idea of what the answer should look like before starting to write, then you will avoid getting sidetracked and wasting time on dead-ends.